In the Synagogue
Adonai: "Lord" in Hebrew. Used in prayer to refer to God.
Aliyah: "Going up" in Hebrew. Refers to going up to the bimah for an honor of the Torah (usually reciting blessings). Can also be used to refer to immigration to Israel.
Ark/Aron HaKodesh: Where the Torah scrolls are stored in the synagogue.
Haftarah: Reading from the Book of Prophets (or Writings) that follows the reading from the Torah on Sabbath and Jewish holidays.
Havdalah: The ritual that marks the end of the Sabbath and the beginning of the rest of the week.
Shema: Prayer that proclaims the oneness of God.